Motion detection

Real-time semantic background subtraction

A. Cioppa, M. Van Droogenbroeck, and M. Braham.

In IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), pages 3214– 3218, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, October 2020.


Semantic background subtraction (SBS) has been shown to improve the performance of most background subtraction algorithms by combining them with semantic information, derived from a semantic segmentation network. However, SBS requires high-quality semantic segmentation masks for all frames, which are slow to compute. In addition, most state-of-the-art background subtraction algorithms are not real-time, which makes them unsuitable for real-world applications. In this paper, we present a novel background subtraction algorithm called Real-Time Semantic Background Subtraction (denoted RT-SBS) which extends SBS for real-time constrained applications while keeping similar performances. RT-SBS effectively combines a real-time background subtraction algorithm with high-quality semantic information which can be provided at a slower pace, independently for each pixel. We show that RT-SBS coupled with ViBe sets a new state of the art for real-time background subtraction algorithms and even competes with the non real-time state-of-the-art ones.

Asynchronous semantic background subtraction

A. Cioppa, M. Braham, and Van Droogenbroeck.

Journal of Imaging, 6(6):1–20, June 2020.


The method of Semantic Background Subtraction (SBS), which combines semantic segmentation and background subtraction, has recently emerged for the task of segmenting moving objects in video sequences. While SBS has been shown to improve background subtraction, a major difficulty is that it combines two streams generated at different frame rates. This results in SBS operating at the slowest frame rate of the two streams, usually being the one of the semantic segmentation algorithm. We present a method, referred to as “Asynchronous Semantic Background Subtraction” (ASBS), able to combine a semantic segmentation algorithm with any background subtraction algorithm asynchronously. It achieves performances close to that of SBS while operating at the fastest possible frame rate, being the one of the background subtraction algorithm. Our method consists in analyzing the temporal evolution of pixel features to possibly replicate the decisions previously enforced by semantics when no semantic information is computed. We showcase ASBS with several background subtraction algorithms and also add a feedback mechanism that feeds the background model of the background subtraction algorithm to upgrade its updating strategy and, consequently, enhance the decision. Experiments show that we systematically improve the performance, even when the semantic stream has a much slower frame rate than the frame rate of the background subtraction algorithm. In addition, we establish that, with the help of ASBS, a real-time background subtraction algorithm, such as ViBe, stays real time and competes with some of the best non-real-time unsupervised background subtraction algorithms such as SuBSENSE.