Publications

Global artificial intelligence

Ghost Loss to Question the Reliability of Training Data

A. Deliège, A. Cioppa, and M. Van Droogenbroeck.

IEEE Access, 8:44774–44782, March 2020.

Summary

Supervised image classification problems rely on training data assumed to have been correctly annotated; this assumption underpins most works in the field of deep learning. In consequence, during its training, a network is forced to match the label provided by the annotator and is not given the flexibility to choose an alternative to inconsistencies that it might be able to detect. Therefore, erroneously labeled training images may end up ‘‘correctly’’ classified in classes which they do not actually belong to. This may reduce the performances of the network and thus incite to build more complex networks without even checking the quality of the training data. In this work, we question the reliability of the annotated datasets. For that purpose, we introduce the notion of ghost loss, which can be seen as a regular loss that is zeroed out for some predicted values in a deterministic way and that allows the network to choose an alternative to the given label without being penalized. After a proof of concept experiment, we use the ghost loss principle to detect confusing images and erroneously labeled images in well-known training datasets (MNIST, Fashion-MNIST, SVHN, CIFAR10) and we provide a new tool, called sanity matrix, for summarizing these confusions.

An Effective Hit-or-Miss Layer Favoring Feature Interpretation as Learned Prototypes Deformations

A. Deliège, A. Cioppa, and M. Van Droogenbroeck.

In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Workshop on Network Interpretability for Deep Learning, pages 1–8, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, January-February 2019.

Summary

Neural networks designed for the task of classification have become a commodity in recent years. Many works target the development of more effective networks, which results in a complexification of their architectures with more layers, multiple sub-networks, or even the combination of multiple classifiers, but this often comes at the expense of producing uninterpretable black boxes. In this paper, we redesign a simple capsule network to enable it to synthesize class-representative samples, called prototypes, by replacing the last layer with a novel Hit-or-Miss layer. This layer contains activated vectors, called capsules, that we train to hit or miss a fixed target capsule by tailoring a specific centripetal loss function. This possibility allows to develop a data augmentation step combining information from the data space and the feature space, resulting in a hybrid data augmentation process. We show that our network, named HitNet, is able to reach better performances than those reproduced with the initial CapsNet on several datasets, while allowing to visualize the nature of the features extracted as deformations of the prototypes, which provides a direct insight into the feature representation learned by the network.

HitNet: a neural network with capsules embedded in a Hit-or-Miss layer, extended with hybrid data augmentation and ghost capsules

A. Deliège, A. Cioppa, and M. Van Droogenbroeck.

CoRR, abs/1806.06519, June 2018.

Summary

Neural networks designed for the task of classification have become a commodity in recent years. Many works target the development of better networks, which results in a complexification of their architectures with more layers, multiple sub-networks, or even the combination of multiple classifiers. In this paper, we show how to redesign a simple network to reach excellent performances, which are better than the results reproduced with CapsNet on several datasets, by replacing a layer with a Hit-or-Miss layer. This layer contains activated vectors, called capsules, that we train to hit or miss a central capsule by tailoring a specific centripetal loss function. We also show how our network, named HitNet, is capable of synthesizing a representative sample of the images of a given class by including a reconstruction network. This possibility allows to develop a data augmentation step combining information from the data space and the feature space, resulting in a hybrid data augmentation process. In addition, we introduce the possibility for HitNet, to adopt an alternative to the true target when needed by using the new concept of ghost capsules, which is used here to detect potentially mislabeled images in the training data.